Hypatia of Alexandria (370-415)
Her father, the philosopher and mathematician Theon of Alexandria, wanted his daughter to be a "perfect human being". She was a beautiful woman who received a complete scientific education at a time when women did not have access to knowledge.
Hypatia refused to marry to dedicate herself entirely to develop her intellectual side. She obtained the chair of Platonic philosophy, devoted herself to the teaching of this knowledge and entered disciplines such as mathematics, astronomy and music.
She wrote a Canon of Astronomy in addition to reviewing the Astronomical Tables by Claudio Tolomeo. She made a planisphere after mapping various celestial bodies and stands out for her work in algebra.
She is the presumed inventor of the hydrometer, which measures the physical properties of air and other gases. There is also proof of her designs for other instruments: a hydroscope, or a graduated brass hydrometer, an apparatus for the distillation of water, as well as the flat astrolabe, to measure the position of stars, planets and the Sun.
Hypatia was murdered at age 45, lynched by a mob of Christians. The murder took place in the framework of Christian hostility against the declining paganism and the political struggles between the different factions of the Church, the Alexandrian patriarchate and the imperial power, represented in Egypt by the prefect Orestes, former student of the philosopher.